Quickstart

This page gives a good introduction in how to get started with py-couchdb. This assumes you already have it installed. If you do not, head over to the Installation section.

Connect to a server

Connect to a couchdb server is very simple. Begin by importing pycouchdb module and instance a server class:

>>> import pycouchdb
>>> server = pycouchdb.Server()

Authentication

By default, py-couchdb connects to a http://localhost:5984/ but if your couchdb requieres authentication, you can pass http://username:password@localhost:5984/ to server constructor:

>>> server = pycouchdb.Server("http://username:password@localhost:5984/")

py-couchdb have two methods for authentication: with session or basic auth. By default, “session” method is used but if you like, can specify the method on create a server instance:

>>> server = pycouchdb.Server("http://username:password@localhost:5984/",
                                                      authmethod="basic")

Create, obtain and delete a database

CouchDB can contains multiple databases. For access to one, this is a simple example:

>>> db = server.database("foo")
>>> db
<pycouchdb.client.Database object at 0x7fd4ae835dd0>

Can create one new db:

>>> server.create("foo2")
<pycouchdb.client.Database object at 0x7f9c46059310>

And can remove a database:

>>> server.delete("foo2")

If you intent remove not existent database, NotFound exception is raised. For more information see Exceptions API.

>>> server.delete("foo")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "./pycouchdb/client.py", line 42, in delete
    raise NotFound("database {0} not found".format(name))
pycouchdb.exceptions.NotFound: database foo not found

Create, obtain and delete a document

The simplest way for get a document is using its id.

>>> db = server.database("foo")
>>> doc = db.get("b1536a237d8d14f3bfde54b41b036d8a")
>>> doc
{'_rev': '1-d62e11770282e4fcc5f6311dae6c80ee', 'name': 'Bar',
                    '_id': 'b1536a237d8d14f3bfde54b41b036d8a'}

You can create an own document:

>>> doc = db.save({"name": "FOO"})
>>> doc
{'_rev': '1-6a1be826ddbd67649df8aa1e0bf12da1',
'_id': 'ef9e608db6434dd39ab3dc4cf35d22b7', 'name': 'FOO'}

Delete a document:

>>> db.delete("ef9e608db6434dd39ab3dc4cf35d22b7")
>>> "ef9e608db6434dd39ab3dc4cf35d22b7" not in db
True

Querying a database

With couchDB you can make two types of queries: temporary or view. This is a simple way to make a temporary query:

>>> map_func = "function(doc) { emit(doc.name, 1); }"
>>> db.temporary_query(map_func)
<generator object _query at 0x7f65bd292870>
>>> list(db.temporary_query(map_func))
[{'value': 1, 'id': '8b588fa0a3b74a299c6d958467994b9a', 'key': 'Fooo'}]

And this is a way to make a query using predefined views:

>>> _doc = {
...    "_id": "_design/testing",
...    "views": {
...        "names": {
...            "map": "function(doc) { emit(doc.name, 1); }",
...            "reduce": "function(k, v) { return  sum(v); }",
...        }
...    }
...}
>>> doc = db.save(_doc)
>>> list(db.query("testing/names", group='true'))
[{'value': 1, 'key': 'Fooo'}]

Subscribe to a changes stream feed

CouchDB exposes a fantastic stream API for push change notifications, and with pycouchdb you can subscribe to these changes in a very simple way:

>>> def feed_reader(message, db):
...     print(message)
...
>>> db.changes_feed(feed_reader)

changes_feed blocks until a stream is closed or FeedReaderExited is raised inside of reader function.

Also, you can make reader as class. This have some advantage, because it exposes often useful close callback.

Example:

>>> from pycouchdb.feedreader import BaseFeedReader
>>> from pycouchdb.exceptions import FeedReaderExited
>>>
>>> class MyReader(BaseFeedReader):
...     def on_message(self, message):
...         # self.db is a current Database instance
...         # process message
...         raise FeedReaderExited()
...
...     def on_close(self):
...         # This is executed after a exception
...         # is raised on on_message method
...         print("Feed reader end")
...
>>> db.changes_feed(MyReader())